Glossary

This is a list of definitions that may be useful in the development of our plan.

ADOPTION – The final confirmation of a development plan by a local planning authority.

ADVERTISEMENT CONSENT – A type of consent required for certain kinds of advertisements, such as shop signs and hoardings. Some advertisements are allowed without the need for an application by the Town and Country Planning (Control of Advertisement) (England) Regulation 2007.

AFFORDABLE HOUSING – Social rented, affordable rented and intermediate housing, provided to eligible households whose needs are not met by the market. Eligibility is determined with regard to local incomes and local house prices. Affordable housing should include provisions to remain at an affordable price for future eligible households or for the subsidy to be recycled for alternative affordable housing provision.

 

AREA OF OUTSTANDING NATURAL BEAUTY (AONB) – A formal designation of an area where planning control is based on the protection and enhancement of the natural beauty of the area.

ARTICLE 4 DIRECTION – A direction restricting permitted development rights within a specified area. They are often used in conservation areas to provide protection for things like windows, doors, chimneys, etc.

BANANA – An extreme kind of NIMBY – Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anyone.

BIODIVERSITY – The degree of variation of life forms within a particular ecosystem. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of an ecosystem. Human activity generally tends to reduce biodiversity, so special measures often need to be taken to offset the impact of development on natural habitats.

BASIC CONDITIONS
Only a draft neighbourhood Plan or Order that meets each of a set of basic conditions can be put to a referendum and be made. These include having regard to NPPF, listed buildings, conservation area, sustainable development, strategic policies of development plan, EU Regulations and any other prescribed conditions.

BROWNFIELD LAND – Land that has been previously developed.

BUILDING FOR LIFE – A technique for assessing the quality of housing proposals using 20 criteria including sustainability, urban design and social/community factors.

BUSINESS AREA – An area covered by a neighbourhood plan which is wholly or predominantly business in nature. The designation of a business area allows businesses to vote in the referendum, in addition to those living in the area.

CHANGE OF USE – A material change in the use of land or buildings that is of significance for planning purposes e.g. from retail to residential.

CHARACTER APPRAISAL – An appraisal, usually of the historic character of conservation areas or other historic areas, such as terraced housing.

COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE LEVY – Allows local authorities to raise funds from developers undertaking new building projects in their areas. Money can be used to fund a wide range of infrastructure such as transport schemes, schools and leisure centres.

COMMUNITY PLAN – A plan produced by a local authority-led partnership to improve the quality of life of people living and working in an area. Community plans take a wide view and cover social and economic issues which development plans, including neighbourhood plans, do not normally address.

COMMUNITY PROFILING – Gathering statistical data on the community, e.g. population size, income which helps build up a ‘social profile’ of the community.

COMMUNITY RIGHT TO BID – Aims to give community groups the time to develop bids and raise money to buy public assets that come onto the open market.

COMMUNITY RIGHT TO BUILD – Allows local people to drive forward new developments in their area where the benefits (e.g. profits from letting homes) could stay within the community. These developments must meet minimum criteria and have local support demonstrated through a referendum.

COMMUNITY RIGHT TO CHALLENGE – Gives voluntary and community groups the right to express an interest in taking over the running of a local service.

COMPULSORY PURCHASE
A legal process initiated by a local authority to acquire privately owned land to implement public policy without the agreement of the owner.

CONFORMITY
Requirement for neighbourhood plans to have appropriate regard to national and local policy.

DEVELOPMENT – Legal definition is “the carrying out of building, mining, engineering or other operations in, on, under or over land, and the making of any material change in the use of buildings or other land.”

DEVELOPMENT BRIEF – Guidance on how a site or are should be developed in terms of uses, design, linkages, conservation, etc.

DEVELOPMENT CONTROL (also Development Management) – The process of administering and making decisions on different kinds of planning applications.

DEVELOPMENT PLAN – A document setting out the local planning authority’s policies and proposals for the development and use of land in the area.

DUTY TO CO-OPERATE – A requirement introduced by the Localism Act 2011 for local authorities to work together in dealing with cross-boundary issues such as public transport, housing allocations or large retail parks.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT – Improvement of an area’s economy through investment, development, job creation, and other measures.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT – Evaluates the likely environmental impacts of the development, together with an assessment of how these impacts could be reduced.

EVIDENCE BASE –The evidence upon which a development plan is based, principally the background facts and statistics about an area, and the views of stakeholders.

FLOOD PLAIN – An area prone to flooding.

GENERAL POWER OF COMPETENCE – A power conveyed by the Localism Act 2011 to give local authorities the ability to undertake any action in the best interest of their communities unless it is against the law.

GREENFIELD SITE – Land where there has been no previous development

GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE – Landscape, biodiversity, trees, allotments, parks, open spaces and other natural assets.

GREEN SPACE – Those parts of an area which are occupied by natural, designed or agricultural landscape as opposed to built development; open space, parkland, woodland, sports fields, gardens, allotments, and the like.

GREEN TRAVEL PLAN – A package of actions produced by a workplace or an organisation setting out how employees, users or visitors will travel to the place in question using options that are healthy, safe and sustainable, and reduce the use of the private car.

HISTORIC PARKS AND GARDENS REGISTER – The national register managed by English Heritage which provides a listing and classification system for historic parks and gardens.

INDEPENDENT EXAMINATION – An examination of a proposed neighbourhood plan, carried out by an independent person, set up to consider whether a neighbourhood plan meets the basic conditions required.

INFRASTRUCTURE – Basic services necessary for development to take place e.g. roads, electricity, water, education and health facilities.

INQUIRY – A hearing by a planning inspector into a planning matter such as a Local Plan or appeal.

LISTED BUILDINGS – Any building or structure which is included in the statutory list of buildings of special architectural or historic interest.

LOCALISM – Shifting power away from central government control to the local level. Making services more locally accountable, devolving more power to local communities, individuals and councils

LOCAL GREEN SPACE DESIGNATION
… is a way to provide special protection against development for green areas of particular importance to local communities. Local Green Space designation is for use in Local Plans or Neighbourhood Plans. These plans can identify on a map (‘designate’) green areas for special protection.

LOCAL PLAN – The name for the collection of documents prepared by your local planning authority for the use and development of land and for changes to the transport system. Can contain documents such as development plans and statements of community involvement.

LOCAL PLANNING AUTHORITY – Local government body responsible for formulating planning policies and controlling development; a district council, metropolitan council, a county council, a unitary authority or national park authority.

LOCAL REFERENDUM – A direct vote in which communities will be asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal.

LOCAL TRANSPORT PLAN – Plans that set out a local authority’s policies on transport on a five yearly basis.

MATERIAL CONSIDERATION
Factors which are relevant to planning such as sustainability, design and traffic impacts.

MIXED USE – The development of a single building or site with two or more complementary uses.

NATIONAL PLANNING POLICY FRAMEWORK – The government policy document adopted in March 2012 intended to make national planning policy and guidance less complex and more accessible. The National Planning Policy Framework introduces a presumption in favour of sustainable development. It gives five guiding principles of sustainable development: living within the planet’s means; ensuring a strong, healthy and just society; achieving a sustainable economy; promoting good governance; and using sound science responsibly.

NEIGHBOURHOOD AREA – The local area in which a neighbourhood plan or Neighbourhood Development Order can be introduced.

NEIGHBOURHOOD DEVELOPMENT ORDER – An order introduced by a parish or town council, or a neighbourhood forum, as part of the neighbourhood planning process, which grants planning permission for a specific development or type of development that will fulfill the vision and policies of the neighbourhood plan for the neighbourhood area.

NEIGHBOURHOOD PLAN – A planning document created by a parish or town council or a neighbourhood forum, which sets out vision for the neighbourhood area, and contains policies for the development and use of land in the area. Neighbourhood plans must be subjected to an independent examination to confirm that they meet legal requirements, and then to a local referendum. If approved by a majority vote of the local community, the neighbourhood plan will then form part of the statutory development plan.

NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM – Designated by the local authority in non-parished areas, an organisation established for the purpose of neighbourhood planning to further the social, economic and environmental wellbeing of the neighbourhood area. There can only be one forum in an area.

NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING – A community-initiated process in which people get together through a local forum or parish or town council and produce a plan for their neighbourhood setting out policies and proposals for the development they wish to see in their area.

NIMBY – ’Not In My Back Yard‘ – used when discussing planning issues. Term is used to define the opposition of residents who are against new developments that they believe will devalue their properties.

OBJECTIVE
Aim or goal to assist achieving the overall vision for an area.

POLICY – A concise statement of the principles that a particular kind of development proposal should satisfy in order to obtain planning permission.

PARISH PLAN – A plan produced by a parish council that sets out a vision for the future of a parish community and outlines how that can be achieved in an action plan.

PARKING STANDARDS – The requirements of a local authority in respect of the level of car parking provided for different kinds of development.

PLAN LED
A system of planning which is organised around the implementation of an adopted plan, as opposed to an ad hoc approach to planning in which each case is judged on its own merits.

PLANNING GAIN
The increase in value of land resulting from the grant of planning permission. Benefit to the public is realised through Section 106 or CIL.

PLANNING OBLIGATION – Planning obligation under Section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990, secured by a local planning authority through negotiations with a developer to offset the public cost of permitting a development proposal. Sometimes developers can selfimpose obligations to pre-empt objections to planning permission being granted. They cover things like highway improvements or open space provision.

PRESUMPTION IN FAVOUR OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – The concept introduced in 2012 by the UK government with the National Planning Policy Framework to be the ’golden thread running through both plan making and decision taking‘. The NPPF gives five guiding principles of sustainable development: living within the planet’s means; ensuring a strong, healthy and just society; achieving a sustainable economy; promoting good governance; and using sound science responsibly.

PUBLIC REALM
Space usually in town and city centres where the public can circulate freely, including streets, parks and public squares.

QUALIFYING BODY – Either a parish/town council or neighbourhood forum, which can initiate the process of neighbourhood planning.

REFERENDUM – A vote by the eligible population of an electoral area may decide on a matter of public policy. Neighbourhood plans and Neighbourhood Development Orders are made by a referendum of the eligible voters within a neighbourhood area.

RETAIL – The process of selling single or small numbers of items directly and in person to customers. The use category defined as Class A1 in the Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1987.

RURAL – Areas of land which are generally not urbanised; usually with low population densities and a high proportion of land devoted to agriculture.

SEQUENTIAL TEST – A principle for making a planning decision based on developing certain sites or types of land before others, for example, developing brownfield land before greenfield sites, or developing sites within town centres before sites outside town centres.

SIGNIFICANCE – The qualities and characteristics which define the special interest of a historic building or area.

SITE ALLOCATION PLAN – A plan accompanying a planning policy document or statement which identifies sites within the plan area on which certain kinds of development are proposed, e.g. residential or retail development.

SITE OF SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC INTEREST – A protected area designated as being of special interest by virtue of its flora, fauna, geological or geomorphological features. SSSIs are designated under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 by the official nature conservation body for the particular part of the UK in question.

SOCIAL ENTERPRISE – A business that trades primarily to achieve social aims, whilst making a profit.

SOCIAL HOUSING
Subsidised housing provided by a Registered Social Landlord on the basis of need.

SOUNDNESS – The soundness of a statutory local planning document is determined by the planning inspector against three criteria: whether the plan is justified, whether it is effective, and whether it is consistent with national and local planning policy. Plans found to be unsound cannot be adopted by the local planning authority. It should be noted, neighbourhood plans are NOT required to meet these tests of soundness.

SPACES STANDARDS
Quantified dimensions set down by a local planning authority to determine where a particular development proposal provides enough space around it so as not to affect the amenity of existing neighbouring developments. Can also apply to garden areas.

SPATIAL PLANNING
Co-ordination and integration across different sectors such as transport and industry.

STAKEHOLDERS – People who have an interest in an organisation or process including residents, business owners and government.

STATEMENT OF COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT – A formal statement of the process of community consultation undertaken in the preparation of a statutory plan.

STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT – Environmental assessment as applied to policies, plans and programmes. Has been in place since the European SEA directive (2001/42/EC).

SUPPLEMENTARY PLANNNG GUIDANCE
Documents which add further detail to the policies in the Local Plan. They can be used to provide further guidance for development of specific sites or a particular issue.

SUSTAINABILITY APPRAISAL – An assessment of the environmental, social and economic impacts of a Local Plan from the outset of the preparation process to check that the plan accords with the principles of sustainable development.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – An approach to development that aims to allow economic growth without damaging the environment or natural resources. Development that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.

TREE PRESERVATION ORDER
To protect a specific tree, group of trees or woodland. TPOs prevent the felling, lopping, topping, uprooting or other deliberate damage to trees without the permission of the local planning authority.

URBAN DESIGN
The design of the physical characteristics of groups of buildings, streets and public spaces, whole neighbourhoods and districts.

USE CLASS
The legally defined category into which the use of a building or land falls. Planning permission must be obtained to change the use of a building or land to another use class.

A1 – Shops
A2 – Financial and professional services
A3 – Food and drink
A4 – Drinking establishments
A5 – Hot food takeaways
B1 – Business
B2 – General industry
B8 – Storage or distribution
C1 – Hotels, boarding and guess houses (where no significant element of care is provided)
C2 – Residential institutions
C3 – Dwelling houses
C4 – Houses in multiple occupation
D1 – Non-residential institutions (clinics, health centres, nurseries, schools, public halls, places of worship).

VILLAGE DESIGN STATEMENT – A document that identifies and defines the distinctive characteristics of a locality, and provides design guidance to influence its future development and improve the physical qualities of the area. Village design statements have generally been produced for rural areas, often by parish councils.

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